Hazelnut trees that provide hazelnut fruit are a member of Betulaceae family. Hazelnut tree, whose mainland is northeastern region of our country, is brought to Greece in Antic ages, and spread to Europe from there. Contemporary manufacturing of hazelnut, which has seventeen significant types, is performed through hybridizing wild hazelnut (C, avellana), almond hazelnut (C.maxima) and round hazelnut (C.pontica).

Benefits of hazelnut include the following:

It is nutritive and it gives energy.

It gives protein into body without residual substance, and assists in normal operation of body, and helps preventing its weakening.

It gives energy to adolescents and nourishes them.

Helps patients in recovery periods and also those who are exhausted both mentally and physically all day.

Helps lowering cholesterol and reducing the risk of heart attack, and due to its high calcium, it strengthens bones and teeth, and gives energy in daily life.

Eliminates body and mental fatigue, gives strength to body.

Hazelnut includes 1-3% dietary fiber. It helps reducing toxic impact of chemical compounds in bowels,
serum lipid level and blood sugar, large intestinal diseases, also helps preventing constipation and heart diseases.

Since sodium is low and magnesium and potassium are high in hazelnut, it plays an important role in regulating blood pressure in body.

Its iron ingredient helps preventing anemia, and digestion and circulation disorders.

Hazelnut includes protein. Its eatable inner part consists of 50% of the fruit. Inner hazelnut's protein ingredient is between 10-18% depending on type, maintenance conditions and ecological factors, and its digestibility differs between 73-83%. Protein amount of hazelnut is higher than egg and cereals, and almost equal to meat and dry legume.

Fat amount of hazelnut is between 50-7 g/100 g depending on the region, climate, soil and type. Besides providing energy in organisms, fats also have important functions as maintaining body temperature, protecting against external factors and carrying vitamins that melt in fat. In addition, fat acids that have various functions and benefits in organisms are included in fat compounds. Results of studies conducted on hazelnut fat compound has shown that the compound resembles olive oil, and oleic oil acid is included the most, and it is followed by linoleic, palmitic, stearic and linoleic oil acids respectively in all types. High percentage of oleic acid gives oil endurance. Hazelnut fat is defined as the closest oil to olive oil in terms of structure.

Oil acids contained in hazelnut oil:

The percentage of oleic acid compound of oil acids contained in hazelnut oil is 83%. In recent scientific studies conducted by TÜBİTAK, Yıldız Technical University, 19 Mayıs University and Refik Saydam Sanitation Center, it is suggested that oleic acid prevents cholesterol increase in blood, reduces cholesterol by 26.2%, regulates blood sugar, has protective impact against cardiovascular diseases, and that it increases protective Apoprotein A-1 by 28% against heart diseases and reduces risky Apoprotein B by 7.5%. Moreover, hazelnut oil contains 12% linoeic acid. Linoeic acid, which is an essential oil acid cannot be produced by body, but it is obtained externally through food. This acid, which is extremely necessary for growth and healthy development of organism, is quite abundant in hazelnut oil. Therefore, hazelnut oil is one of the rarely found food which contains two important oil acids as oleic acid and linoleic acid.

Hazelnut is a very rich source of minerals. It contains 1 to 3.4% ash. Mineral substance composition in 100 g inner hazelnut conveniently meets daily need of iron, magnesium, copper, manganese, potassium, phosphor, zinc and calcium, which are essential in nutrition of human body in terms of minerals. In addition, the ratio of salt contained in hazelnut is lower than normal water. In particular dietary programs with low salt and in patients with hypertension, it is seen that consumption of hazelnut will not be a problem. The fact that sodium is low and magnesium, calcium and potassium are high in hazelnut plays an important role in regulating blood pressure in body. Minerals contained in 100 g hazelnut are: 3.4 mg iron, 704 mg potassium, 1.3 mg copper, 209 mg calcium, 2 mg sodium, 5.1 mg manganese, 2.2 mg zinc, 16.2 mg magnesium, 337 mg phosphor.

Since vitamin E contained in hazelnut is a natural antioxidant, it not only gives the product durability, but it is also highly significant in terms of nutrition. Hazelnut oil is also highly rich in terms of alpha-tocopherol. Alpha-tocopherol is essential in human body in order for muscle tissues and reproductive system to function normally. Tocopherols are beneficial compounds for human health that show antioxidant effect especially in solid and fluid oils. It prevents oxidation of oils and damage to cells with oxygen compounds. Protective against several diseases including cardiovascular disorders, tocopherols reduce lipid oxidation that occur in human blood, and facilitate heart function. Beside being a good source of vitamins B1 and B2 that serve as regulators in carbohydrate, protein and oil metabolism in human body, and a very good source of vitamine B6, hazelnut is also one of the best sources in terms of natural antioxidant, vitamin E, after herbal oil.

At a screening study conducted country-wide by TUBİTAK in 960 school kids, it is observed that 90% of children nourish insufficiently in terms of B2, and 84% in terms of B6. Required for blood production and mental health, vitamins B2 and B6 are contained significantly in hazelnut, and therefore, regular daily consumption of this food may be considered as a practical solution to nutrition problem of children in our country. Vitamins contained in 100 g hazelnut are: 0.46 mg B1 Vitamin, 0.24 mg B6 Vitamin, 0.10 mg B2 Vitamin, 35.5 mg E Vitamin, 1.9 mg Niasin.

Dietary fabric (pomace) and pectins are contained in hazelnut in 1 to 3%. These compounds prevent toxic effects of chemical compunds in bowels, large intestinal disease, constipation and heart disease, and reduce serum lipid level and blood sugar.

Does melting of chocolate provide any information about the products' quality?

Melting heat of chocolate is around 32°C . It melts at temperatures above this value. For instance, body temperature is 36.5°C, and when it is held in hand, chocolate melts after a certain period of time. Melting temperature of cocoa fat is 27°C, and it is 40°C for herbal oil. So quality chocolate made up of cocoa is more likely to melt compared to that of with herbal oil.

History of chocolate
starts at 19th century,
but the story
goes a long way
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